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Caring for your carpet

 BOOKLET CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

The aim of a carpet maintenance programme is to assist in preserving the original appearance and texture of the carpet for as long as possible, thus protecting the asset value as well as the aesthetic enjoyment.

It is not traffic alone, but also soil and grit, that contribute to the wear of the pile and change the appearance of a carpet. Soil, mud, grit and other foreign substances are constantly being carried onto the carpet surface through air pollution, wind and mostly on the soles of people's footwear.

In order to effectively prolong the life of a carpet, these substances must be removed as soon as possible to prevent them from settling deeper into the pile, or staining the carpet fibre.

Cleaning methods and schedules should only be determined after careful consideration of the following:

  1. Location of the carpeted area  –  e.g. office, corridor or passage.
  2. Situation of the building –  e.g. air pollution is greater near a busy international airport, industrial area or major motor highway, while more grit can be expected near a beach.
  3. Traffic volumes and concentration due to access routes.
  4. Nature of soil likely to be trodden onto the carpeting – e.g. ground floor entrance, parking garage entrance, ceramic tiled area at buffets in restaurants, spills from beverages and cleaning trolleys.
Only when the need for effective maintenance is acknowledged and implemented will a carpet deliver its full potential and retain the value of the asset, which it represents.

PREVENTATIVE MEASURES

PRODUCT SELECTION, COLOUR AND DESIGN

Carpet care starts with the selection of the correct product. If the choice is not suited to the application, effective maintenance will be difficult if not impossible.

Choice of pile fibre content and weight must be determined by the volume of traffic and nature of the area to be carpeted – e.g. corridor, boardroom or office.

Careful consideration must be given to colour and design, which contribute considerably to appearance retention and soil hiding ability between scheduled cleaning. Plain and/or lighter colours should be reserved for areas where soiling is less prevalent.

Although certain fibres, designs and colours are more forgiving, this does not mean that these require less maintenance.

WALK–OFF / BARRIER MATS

The use of walk-off mats at all external entrances will significantly reduce the ingress of soil and dirt onto carpeted areas.

It is vital that these mats are correctly selected, with paying special attention to type, size and position. Heavy duty mats with scrapers and squeegee inserts are recommended for street and garage entrances.

Proper maintenance and regular cleaning are equally important to the effectiveness of these mats.

HIGH WEAR HAZARDS

For an office environment, Chair Protectors are recommended where caster-chairs are used. Beware of moisture buildup under these elements as this could cause rapid rotting of any non-synthetic materials.

Carpeting on stairs is also a high wear area; stair-nosing and correct specifications are required for such applications.

Finally, the typical non-slip, highly abrasive soles of today's leisure shoes create very high friction on carpet-pile-fibres, and this, together with the abnormal loading caused by stiletto heels and spiked shoes, can cause rapid deterioration of the carpet pile and significantly affect appearance retention and the life of a carpet.

VACUUMING AND PILE LIFTING

Efficient and thorough vacuuming is the most important component of carpet maintenance.

The use of a heavy-duty vacuum cleaner with a power-driven brush or beater bar is recommended. Frequent cleaning of the filters and maintenance of the machine is of vital importance to ensure optimum performance at all times.

The frequency of vacuuming will depend on the traffic intensity, propensity of soiling and the type of equipment used. It is important that the soil, grit and dirt particles are thoroughly removed; if not, they will rapidly and irreparably damage the carpet fibres.

Vacuuming should be supplemented with a pile-lifting programme for cut-pile carpets as this will lift and open the pile, assisting with the removal of embedded soil. Care must be taken with this type of equipment as incorrect use can result in damage to the pile substrate, more specifically on loop-pile carpeting.

SPOT REMOVAL

Effective spot removal must be part of the maintenance programme. This should be done daily, in order that spots do not become permanent stains.

The correct techniques and cleaning agents should be used, and the person/s responsible for this function must be well trained.

Spot removal is done as follows:

  1. Remove as much solid residue as possible with a blunt knife or spatula as soon as possible after the spill.
  2. Blotup any spills or remaining liquid with absorbent plain white paper or cloth.
  3. Use the recommended removal agent for the particular spill. Do not over-wet and blotup frequently, working from the outside of the spot towards the centre.
  4. When using a new spot removal agent, always test on an inconspicuous area (under or behind a piece of furniture). Apply a few drops of the solution and rub gently with a clean white towel. If any colour is transferred to the towel, or a colour change occurs on the carpet, this spotting agent must not be used.
  5. A detailed spot removal chart is given in Annex B.

SURFACE CLEANING

This type of cleaning supplements the vacuuming and spot cleaning procedures, but does not replace the deep restorative cleaning.

Again, the frequency is determined by the traffic and soiling intensity. The following methods are recommended:

SPRAY PAD CLEANING:

The pads of a rotary shampoo machine are pre-soaked with a special detergent solution, and the soiled area is pre-sprayed with the same solution. When the machine is run over the carpet surface the pads absorb the soil, emulsified and held in suspension by the detergent solution, from the carpet. It is important to replace the pads frequently to ensure proper removal of the soil, otherwise spreading of the soil will occur.

IMPREGNATED POWDER CLEANING (Such as Chemdry, Capture, Duo, Host etc.):

This is the preferred method for cut-piles and is easier for in-house staff to apply.

The powder is sprinkled over the surface by hand or by dispenser, then brushed manually, or mechanically, into the pile. After about 15 – 20 minutes, the powder, with the absorbed and loosened soil, can be removed by thorough vacuuming.

After approximately every third powder clean, a deep hot water extraction clean is recommended to remove any residual powder build-up in the carpet pile.

DEEP RESTORATIVE CLEANING

From time to time a deep clean will be necessary. We recommend the "Spray Extraction" process, also wrongly referred to as "Steam Cleaning".

It is vital that the carpet is well vacuumed prior to this method of cleaning, as any sandy soil will turn to mud rendering it more difficult to extract. We also recommend that the pile is "lifted" before such a clean to enable better penetration of the cleaning agent. The correct cleaning agent must be used, preferably one that leaves no sticky residue. Over-wetting must be avoided; in this respect the correct and properly maintained equipment is vital.

  1. Spots should be pre-treated before a deep clean.
  2. If too much, or the incorrect detergent is used, a residue will be left in the carpet fibre, which will accelerate re-soiling. Never use a detergent that leaves a sticky residue after evaporation.
  3. Never over-wet the carpet as this may cause extensive shrinkage or cellulosic browning and could lead to a musty smell or rotting.
  4. The pH of the cleaning solution for wool should be between 5.5 and 7.00.
  5. Chemicals and detergents should be effectively rinsed from the carpet.

Finally, it is imperative that deep-cleans be carried out by qualified commercial cleaners, and that the equipment be in good working condition.

TYPICAL MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES

Although the following schedules are given as a guide, the traffic intensity, nature of the installation and the type of soiling will dictate whether these schedules should be accelerated, or even slightly reduced.

Location Traffic Volumein area Maintenance  Procedure Interval

Hotel  Bedrooms

Light-med traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

   

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every month

   

Surface cleaning

Every 6 months

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 18 months

Hotel  Bedrooms

Med-heavy traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

   

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every month

   

Surface cleaning

Every 3 months

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 12 months

Executive Offices

Light-med traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

   

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every month

   

Surface cleaning

Every 6 months

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 18 months

TYPICAL MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES (Continued)

Location Traffic Volume in area Maintenance  Procedure Interval

Hotel Corridors

Med-heavy traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

   

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every month

   

Surface cleaning

Every month

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 4 months

Hotel Lounges

Med-heavy traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

   

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every month

   

Surface cleaning

Every 2 months

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 6 months

Restaurants

Heavy traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

   

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every 2 weeks

   

Surface cleaning

Every month

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 4 months

TYPICAL MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES (Continued)

Location Traffic Volume in area Maintenance  Procedure Interval

Hotel Bars

Heavy traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

   

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every 2 weeks

   

Surface cleaning

Every month

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 4 months

Ground Floor Foyers

Heavy traffic

Vacuuming

Every day

 

 

Spot removal

Every day

   

Pile lifting

Every 2 weeks

   

Surface cleaning

Every month

   

Deep restorative cleaning

Every 4 months

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Source Description/Contents of stain Method

Beer

Colourless to light yellow, slightly stiff.
Hops, malt, alcohol, albumin, tannin.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply vinegar solution, blot frequently.
  3. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

Blood

Reddish when fresh, dries to dark brown with irregular edge
Albumin, fat, fibrin, iron.

  1. Apply cool detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply cool ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  4. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.
  5. If stain remains, apply rust remover or oxalic acid solution.
  6. Bleaching with 3% to 5% hydrogen peroxide may be necessary.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Butter and
Margarine

Greasy, yellowish red, sometimes built-up. Milk, vegetable dye, corn oil, salt, preservatives, vegetable fats.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  2. Apply detergent solution, blot until dry.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  4. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

Candle wax

Stiff and built-up
Petroleum, animal fats and oils, basic dyes.

  1. Scrape off as much as possible with a  spatula or dull knife.
  2. Apply absorbent paper and warm iron.
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  4. Apply P O G, blot.
  5. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.

 

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Chutney and tomato sauce

Reddish brown, absorbed or built-up.
Tomatoes, salt, sugar, spices, tannin, vinegar, and onions.

  1. Apply cool detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  4. If stain remains, bleach with 3% to 5% hydrogen peroxide or with sodium perborate.
  5. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

Chewing gum

Greyish or pink, rubbery, sticky, built-up.
Chicle flavouring, sugar.

  1. Harden gum with an ice cube until it is brittle enough to scrape off with a dull knife or spatula.
  2. Apply dry-cleaning solvent to remove remaining traces.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Chocolate

Brown with irregular edge, absorbed or built-up.
Oil, grease, cocoa, butter, milk, sugar and colouring.

  1. Scrape off as much as possible with a spatula or dull knife.
  2. Apply cool detergent solution, blot.
  3. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  4. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  5. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  6. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

Cocktails

Colourless or light brown, absorbed.
Alcohol, tannin, sugar.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  3. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Coffee

Brown with irregular edge, darkening with heat and age.

 

 

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot. Use enzyme detergent (if cream was present).
  2. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  3. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  4. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

 

Cough syrup

Usually absorbed with an irregular edge, sticky when wet, stiff when dry.

NB  Ammonia will set stains on wool and silk, but may help in removal from other fabrics.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot
  4. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  5. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot unit dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Crayons

Built-up, sometimes shiny.
Wax, grease, pigment, colouring matter.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  4. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

Egg

White or yellow (or both), built-up, coagulates with heat.
Albumin, oil fats, colouring matter.

  1. Blot up as much as possible.
  2. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  3. Apply cold ammonia solution, blot.
  4. If stain remains, apply enzyme detergent.
  5. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Food colouring

Absorbed, irregular edge.
Colouring matter, propylene, glycol.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blotfrequently. A dried stain will probably spread.
  2. Repeat step 1 until colour is no longer transferred to towel.
  3. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  4. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

Fruit juice

Light yellow or characteristic colour of fruit, absorbed and splotchy with irregular edge.
Tannin, acids, pulps, sugar, colouring matter.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  4. Rinse with water, blot until dry.
  5. If stain remains, apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  6. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Furniture stainer

Brownish or reddish, absorbed with irregular edge.
Petroleum distillate, colouring matter.

NB  This stain is almost impossible to
remove completely.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  4. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Rinse with water and blot until dry.

Glue (water based)

Stiff and shiny, usually built-up.
Starches, gelatine, albumins.

  1. Apply water, blot.
  2. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  3. If stain remains, heat the detergent solution slightly and repeat step 2.
  4. Rinse with water, blot until dry.
P O G =  Paint, Oil and Grease remover.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Glue (spirit based)

Sticky, usually built-up, black, attracts dirt.

  1. Apply lacquer thinner, blot.
  2. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
Grass

Green or brown smudges (or both).
Tannin, acids, oil, chlorophyll.

  1. Apply amyl acetate, if available, to remove chlorophyll, blot.
  2. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  3. Rinse with water, blot.
  4. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  5. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  6. Rinse with water, blot until dry.
  7. Bleaching or professional stripping may be necessary.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Gravy

Brownish, absorbed, built-up.
Meat extracts, starch, proteins, milk, flour, seasonings.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  4. Apply enzyme solution, blot.
  5. Rinse with water, blot until dry.
Greases

Greyish or brownish, absorbed or built-up.
Oils, sometimes soils.

NB  Bleaching or professional stripping may be necessary.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Alternate steps 1 and 2 until stain is removed.
  4. If stain remains, apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  6. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  7. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Ice Cream

Absorbed and built-up, stiff when dry.
Cream, milk, sugar, fruits, extracts,
colouring matter.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  4. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  5. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.
  6. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
Ink
(ball point)

Can be any colour, usually blue, absorbed.
Basic or soluble aniline dyes,
insoluble organic solvents, oils, resins, gums, binding agents such as shellac, varnish or petroleum.

NB Bleaching or professional stripping
may be necessary.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  4. Apply amyl acetate if available, or acetone (except on acetate fibres).
  5. If stain remains, apply rust remover or oxalic acid solution.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Ink (Indian)

Absorbed, usually black.
Pigment (carbon black) dispersed in water
with a binder.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  4. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  6. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

Jam and jelly

Reddish or bluish, absorbed and built-up.
Pulp of fruit, sugar, tannin, preservatives.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  3. Rinse with water, blot.
  4. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  5. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Lipstick

Red, pink, orange, soft and greasy.
Pigment or dye in fat, waxes and oils.

NB  Try to avoid wet cleaning on wool.
Use P O G and dry-cleaning solvents as long as possible.

  1. Scrape off excess with spatula or dull knife.
  2. Apply P O G, making sure not to re-apply stain onto the textile floor covering.
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  4. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  6. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  7. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

Merthiolate and
mercuro-chrome

Orange red, absorbed.
Eosin dye in alcohol solution.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot
  4. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Mildew

Greyish or brownish fungus with black spots.

Do not use chlorine bleach on wool or silk.

  1. Apply enzyme detergent.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot.
  4. Apply solution of oxidizing bleach (chlorine or perborate).
  5. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

Milk

Usually white, sometimes lighter in the centre with heavier build-up around the edges.
Fats, albumins, water.

  1. Apply cool detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  4. Rinse with water, blot until dry.
  5. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  6. Rinse with water, blot until dry.
  7. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Mucilage

Either built-up or slightly absorbed, stiff
with an irregular edge when dry.
Albumins, animal proteins and gums.

  1. Apply hot enzyme detergent, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

Mud

Greyish, brownish, reddish, absorbed and built-up.
Soil with grasses and oils
Clay and iron.

  1. Brush or scrape off as much as possible.
  2. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  3. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  4. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.
  5. If stain remains, apply P O G and dry-cleaning solvent alternately, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Mustard

Yellowish, absorbed or built-up.
Mustard seed, vinegar, salt, turmeric, oils, spices, flavourings.

NB   Do not use ammonia or alkalis.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  3. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  4. If stain remains, rust remover (oxalic acid solution) or bleaching may be necessary.

Nail varnish

Usually pink or red, stiff, shiny or built-up.
Red dye or pigment in a liquid cellulose
acetate base, solvent, plasticizer.

PRETEST FIRST.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Apply amyl acetate if available, or nail polish remover.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Oils

Circular, elongated or cross-shaped, darkening with age.
Petroleum distillate or vegetable oil polyglycerides, methyl silicate, preservatives.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Alternate dry-cleaning solvent and P O G, blotting frequently.
  4. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  6. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  7. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Paint
(oil based)

Usually built-up and stiff.
Pigments, drying oils, resins, gums, volatile solvents.

NB  Check label on paint for specific thinner or solvent.
OR

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  4. Alternate steps 2 and 3 until stain is removed.
  5. If stain persists, weigh down the stain with towels dampened with dry-cleaning solvent for several hours to loosen, blot with solvent.
  6. Apply several drops of detergent solution and work into the stain, blot.
  7. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  8. Alternate steps 2, 3 and 6 until stain is removed.
  9. Rinse thoroughly with warm water.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Paint
(water based)

Absorbed or built-up and stiff when dry.
Water, latex, pigments, emulsifiers, preservatives.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Rinse with water, blot until dry.
  4. Apply P O G, blot.
  5. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.

Rubber cement

White or clear, built-up, possibly sticky.
Rubber (synthetic or natural) resin, solvent.

  1. Roll the glue off if it has hardened sufficiently.
  2. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  3. Apply P O G, blot.
  4. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  5. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  6. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Rust

Reddish-brown, absorbed or built-up.
Oxides of iron.

  1. Moisten carpet fibre with water.
  2. Apply rust remover or warm oxalic acid solution.
  3. Allow to stand for 10 min to 15 min, blot.
  4. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

Shoe polish

Usually black or brown, absorbed or
built-up.
Wax resins, solvents, dye, shellac, alcohol, tannin.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  2. Apply P O G, blot.
  3. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  4. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  6. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.
  7. If stain persists, bleaching or professional stripping may be necessary.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Soft drinks

Colourless, yellowish, reddish or brownish,
darkening with age.
Tannin, sugar, vegetable colouring, flavouring, fruit extracts.

  1. Apply cold detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  3. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  4. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

Soot

Black spots or smudges. Carbon, sulphur compounds, sometimes grease.

  1. Apply dry-cleaning solvent, blot.
  2. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  3. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  4. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Tar and asphalt

Black, shiny, built-up or absorbed, distinctive odour.
Coal tar or petroleum, sulphur compounds.

  1. Scrape off as much as possible with a spatula or dull knife.
  2. Apply dry-cleaning solvent.
  3. Apply P O G, blot.
  4. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  5. Rinse with water, blot until dry.

Toothpaste

Whitish or greenish, absorbed or built-up.
Soap, bleaching compound, flavouring,
fluoride compound.

  1. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  2. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  3. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  4. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Urine

Yellowish or brown, darkening with age, absorbed.
Urea, uric acid, ammonia, organic acids, pigments, cholesterol, albumins.

NB  Urine stains might cause permanent dye removal from fibres.

  1. Blot up as much as possible if still wet.
  2. Apply detergent solution, blot.
  3. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  4. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  5. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.
  6. If stain remains, apply rust remover or oxalic acid solution.
  7. Bleaching with 3% to 5% hydrogen peroxide or with sodium perborate might be necessary.

REMOVAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC STAINS

Vomit

Various colours, absorbed, built-up.
Food, mucus, albumins, acids.

  1. Blot up as much as possible.
  2. Apply enzyme detergent, blot.
  3. Apply ammonia solution, blot.
  4. Apply vinegar solution, blot.
  5. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

Wine

Reddish or purplish, absorbed.
Alcohol, sugar, tannin, colouring matter.

  1. Apply lemon juice, salt or vinegar, blot.
  2. Rinse thoroughly with water, blot until dry.

TABLE 2 – ACIDS USED IN SPOT REMOVAL

Acid Fibres damaged by
Cold concentrate
Reagent for % to use Precaution (*)

Acetic

Acetate
Triacetate

Spot removal

Usually 5%, no stronger than 28%

Concentrate will burn the skin

Boric

Safe on most fibres
and dyes

Spot removal,
flame proofing

   

Citric

Safe on most fibres
and dyes

Metallic stains,
brightens colour

   

Formic

Acetate, Triacetate,
Nylon

Paint remover,
reducing agent

10%

Concentrate will burn the skin

General
Formula

Safe on most fibres
and dyes

Fruit and
beverage stains

Use as made-up, or
follow directions

Rinse well

Lactic

Acetate
Triacetate

Water insoluble dye,
metallic stains, ink,
fruit and beverages

No stronger than
28%

 

Oleic

Safe on most fibres
and dyes

Dye and paint
remover

Dry solvent, soluble

Produces a yellowish stain

Oxalic

Formation of crystals
can cut fibres

Metallic stains, paint

1% to 3%

Has to be rinsed off
well

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